It is well-known that boys and girls with ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) often underachieve in school. While the symptoms of short attention span and impulsiveness, and disorganization will affect academic performance, it has also been suspected that there is an increase incidence of true learning disability, especially in the area of reading, in children with ADHD. Now a study reported in the October issue of Pediatrics provides evidence that ADHD and reading disability often do exist together.
In this report from the Mayo Clinic, the medical and school histories of over 5000 boys and girls were evaluated. Three hundred and seventy-nine of these children fulfilled the criteria for ADHD. Compared to boys and girls without ADHD, those with ADHD were significantly more likely to be male. The incidence of reading disability was twice as high in children with ADHD as in those without ADHD symptoms. Girls with ADHD were more likely than boys with ADHD to have reading problems.
This large study confirms that there is an increased risk of reading problems in children with ADHD. In light of this, the study authors point out the importance of evaluating children with ADHD for reading disability and providing remedial help to those who need it.
In the ADHD Strategies for Success Book, we point out that the Number 3 step in effective management is Educational Intervention. We state, “Most children with attention deficits will usually have specific educational needs—needs which will require varying levels of evaluation and individualized instruction and/or classroom modification.
While many children with ADHD have no evidence of language-based learning disability, there are many in which ADHD and a learning disability co-exist. I have seen children who have gone for years without treatment for their ADHD because all their academic problems were blamed on their language dysfunction. The attention problems and poor organization were thought to be secondary. On the other hand, I know of children who have not received serious evaluation of their reading and spelling under-achievement because their poor grades were blamed on their attention deficit disorder. When a child has been diagnosed with either ADHD or language processing dysfunction, the child should be carefully observe for evidence of the other condition.